By Kent Thiesse
For the first time in several years, Commodity Credit Corporation national loan rates as part of the new Farm Bill. National loan rates for corn, soybeans and wheat for the 2019-2023 crop years are increasing. This is important because county crop loan rates at FSA offices are based on these rates.
Rates for corn are up by 13 percent from $1.95 per bushel to $2.20 per bushel. The rate for soybeans rose by 24 percent from $5.00 per bushel to $6.20 per bushel, and the national wheat loan rate by 15 percent from $2.94 per bushel to $3.38 per bushel.
Besides affecting the county loan rates, the national loan rate levels also impact the maximum payment levels for the price loss coverage option of commodity farm program. They won’t have much impact on the county yield based ag risk coverage program (ARC-CO) or individual farm yield based program option (ARC-IN).
Producers enrolled in the PLC farm program option for 2019 and 2020 will receive farm program payments if the market year average price for a given commodity for the 12-month market year falls below the reference price for a given crop. The reference prices for the 2019 crop year are:
The national CCC loan rate establishes the maximum PLC payment rate ($1.50 per bushel for corn, $2.20 per bushel for soybeans, and $2.12 per bushel for wheat). If crop prices drop below county loan rate levels, producers can potentially, earn loan deficiency payments on the commodity, although this hasn’t happened for nearly 15 years.
The CCC national loan rates also establish the county loan rates for the CCC non-recourse marketing assistance loans (more commonly known as “CCC crop loans”), which are adjusted based on average crop market prices at a given county location.
The CCC crop loans are 9-month loans that can be taken out by producers at county FSA offices on a specific number of bushels following the harvest of a given crop. The CCC loans provide short-term financing, and the loans are used by many farmers as part of their annual cash flow planning. The use of CCC crop loans has increased in recent years due to the very tight cash flow positions for many farm operations, along with very low commodity prices at harvest time.
The CCC crop loans allow producers to store grain in on-farm storage without having to sell immediately post-harvest. This provides farmers with more marketing flexibility to sell the grain by being able to forward price the corn and soybeans into the following spring and summer when prices are usually better.
Farm operators can also forward price grain using hedge-to-arrive contracts where they lock in a futures price on the grain during the year that the crop is grown and set the local basis on the grain when the CCC loan is released and the grain is delivered.
The CCC crop loan rates are usually at reduced interest rates compared to typical farm operating loan interest rates. Interest rates are fixed for the 9-month loan period; however, the interest rates are adjusted on a monthly basis. The current CCC crop loan interest rate for April is 3.50 percent.
The bushels of grain that are placed under a 9-month CCC crop loan are pledged as collateral to the CCC for the crop loan. A “non-recourse” CCC commodity loan means that producers have the option of delivering the commodity at the end of the 9-month loan period, or to pay off the loan principal plus accrued interest.
In most instances, it is to the advantage of the farm operators to repay the loan plus interest and sell the grain, which can be done at any time during the loan period. Producers must make arrangements to repay the CCC crop loan before FSA can release the collateral and allow the grain to be sold and delivered.
While there are many advantages to farmers who utilize CCC crop loans as part of the financial and marketing management for their operation, there are a few cautions to be aware of with the use of CCC crop loans. These cautions include:
The use of CCC crop loans can be a very good management strategy for crop producers; however, a producer should always consult with their ag lender and farm business management advisor on how the best utilize the CCC loans in their operation. For more information regarding requirements for CCC loans, producers should contact their local Farm Service Agency office. County loan rates for CCC commodity loans are also available on the FSA website.
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